Antbirds are monogamous, mate for life and defend territories. They usually lay two eggs in a nest that is either suspended from branches or supported on a branch, stump or mound on the ground. Both parents share the tasks of incubation and of brooding and feeding the nestlings. After fledging, each parent cares exclusively for one chick.
Thirty-eight species are threatened with extinction due to human activities. Antbirds are not targeted by either hunters or the pet trade. The principal threat is habitat loss, which causes habitat fragmentation and increased nest predation in habitat fragments.