The Empire of Brazil was a political entity that comprised present-day Brazil under the rule of Emperors Pedro I and his son Pedro II. Founded in 1822 it was replaced by a republic in 1889.
As a result of the Napoleonic occupation of Portugal the Portuguese royal family, the Braganzas (Portuguese: os Braganças), went into exile in Brazil, the most important of Portugal's colonies. What followed was a period when Brazil became the capital of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves and enjoyed self-government under the Braganza dynasty with no reference to the authorities in Lisbon. This nurtured a distaste for the idea of returning to status quo ante upon the overthrow of Napoleon's influence over Portugal. Brazil came to be independent of Portugal albeit under the rule of a member of the Portuguese royal family.
After its independence from the Portuguese on 7 September 1822 Brazil became a monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, which lasted until the establishment of a republican government on 15 November 1889. Two emperors occupied the throne in that period: Pedro I from 1822 to 1831; and Pedro II from 1831 to 1889. King João VI of Portugal held the title of Emperor of Brazil as stipulated by the treaty recognizing Brazilian independence.
The end of the Empire in 1889 and the foundation of the republic was a reactionary development following the abolition of slavery in 1888 which had created a serious threat to the interests of the economic and political oligarchy.
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