alist James T. Callender reported that Jefferson had fathered several children with Sally Hemings. Jefferson never responded publicly, but his family tried to protect him. For instance, his grandson Thomas Jefferson Randolph told a 19th-c. biographer that Hemings had been the mistress of Jefferson's nephew Peter Carr. In 1873 Madison Hemings stated his father was Thomas Jefferson and his mother was Sally Hemings in an Ohio newspaper interview. Both at the time and in 1951, when his memoir was rediscovered, his testimony was discounted by many historians. Merrill Peterson and Douglas Adair, two modern historians, dismissed Madison Hemings's statements as unreliable or politically motivated. Dumas Malone, Jefferson's primary biographer in mid-century, adopted both the opinions of Peterson and Adair on Madison Hemings.
In 1974 Fawn McKay Brod
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