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 The 500-year-old Roman Republic

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Kig 'Yar
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PostSubject: The 500-year-old Roman Republic   Wed Mar 02, 2011 8:47 pm

The 500-year-old Roman Republic, which preceded it, had been weakened and subverted through several civil wars.[nb 2] Several events are commonly proposed to mark the transition from Republic to Empire, including Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator (44 BC), the Battle of Actium (2 September 31 BC), and the Roman Senate's granting to Octavian the honorific Augustus (4 January 27 BC).[nb 3] Roman expansion began in the days of the Republic, but the empire reached its greatest extent under Emperor Trajan: during his reign the Roman Empire controlled approximately 6.5 million km2[6] of land surface. Because of the Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law, and forms of government in the territory it governed, particularly Europe, and by means of European expansionism throughout the modern world.

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PostSubject: Re: The 500-year-old Roman Republic   Thu Mar 03, 2011 4:42 am

The Byzantine Empire (or Byzantium) was the predominantly Greek-speaking[2] eastern part of the Roman Empire throughout Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Also known as the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire was called simply Roman Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, Basileia Rhōmaiōn)[3] or Romania (Ῥωμανία, Rhōmanía) by its inhabitants and neighbours. Centered on the capital of Constantinople, it was ruled by emperors in direct succession to the ancient Roman emperors after the collapse of Western Roman Empire. As the distinction between "Roman Empire" and "Byzantine Empire" is largely a modern convention, it is not possible to assign a date of separation, but an important point is Emperor Constantine I's transfer in 324 of the capital from Nicomedia (in Anatolia) to Byzantium on the Bosphorus, which became Constantinople, "City of Constantine" (alternatively "New Rome").





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